Plant tissue culture is an in vitro propagation of sterilized plant cells, tissue and or organs on a nutrient medium usually in a glass container. It is used as gross term for protoplast, cell, tissue and organ culture grown under asceptic conditions.
Plant tissue culture has wide applications in meristem culture and cryopreservation, production of phytopharmaceutical metabolites, preservation of rare or endangered medicinal plants, rapid multiplication of new varieties and genetic resources conservation. It is also applied in bioreactors for large scale growth of plant cells in liquid culture for the manipulation of secondary metabolites for biopharmaceuticals utilisation.
Many medicinal plants are threatened in their natural habitat due to increasing population and demand for herbal products by approximately 80% of the world’s population. Plant tissue culture techniques have proved to be a veritable alternative tool to producing desirable bioactive constituents from plants. Therefore, it can salvage threatened species by conservation through an en masse production of plant materials in various medicinal plants to complement wild sourcing.