Postgraduate courses

 

M.Sc. (Pharmacognosy) Courses

CODE

CONTENT

UNITAGE/STATUS

PCG 701

Spectroscopic Techniques in Natural Product Research

Advanced study of spectroscopic techniques e.g. UV, IR, HNMR, CNMR, MS, in structural elucidation and purity assessment of plant drug products. Basic study and illustrated application of spectroscopic techniques on different classes of plants’ secondary metabolites e.g. saponnis, alkaloids, anthracenes, flavonoids, glycosides, coumarins and sub-classes of terpenoids (the isoprenoids).

 

 3 R

PCG 702

Raw Materials for Crude Drug Production

Sources of medicinal plant raw materials. Cultivation, propagation, collection, post-harvest processes and storage of medicinal plant raw materials.  Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and Good Harvesting Practices (GHP).  Tissue culture techniques in crude drug production; chemical races in the plant kingdom; genetic effects on the physical and chemical compositions resulting in different plant varieties. Allelopathy. Prospects and problems of medicinal raw material sourcing especially among the Nigerian medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and herbal industries. Commercial requirements and other trade considerations for international herbal markets. Field trips to herbal farms and local herbal drug production centres.

 3 E

PCG703

            Crude Drug Standardization and Evaluation

(a)   (a) Principles of standardization. Advanced microscopic techniques (photomicrography, electron microtomy, histology, pharmacognosy drawings), their application to plant drug standardization and crude drug qualitative and quantitative evaluation.  Structural and micro-chemical indicative substances or markers, pharmacopoeial standards and monographs, herbal pharmacopoeias and formularies; quality assurance, quality control and quality validation (for crude drug potency, identity, purity and safety); crude drug analysis and evaluation with reference to official herbal pharmacopoeial data and Food and Drug regulatory specifications.

(b).Physical, chemical and biological assessments as standardization tools for vegetable, microbial and animal drugs. Physical constants, ash values, moisture content, extractives, chromatographic and spectroscopic finger prints, biological-equivalents, etc.

(c). (c) Crude drug adulteration, substitution, counterfeiting and faking.  Prospects and problems of standardization of formulated herbal medicines.

 

 4 C

PCG704

            Phytotherapy of Selected Disease  States

Contribution of plants and plant products in the treatment of human diseases.  Cancer chemotherapy and cardiovascular diseases, antimalarials, antimicrobials, anti-HIV/AIDS, anti-fertility or contraceptives, steroids and steroidal hormones, molluscicides, laxatives, antisickling, anti-diabetics, immune boosting, antispasmodics, antioxidants, antiflatulence, and wound-healing.  Aloe vera and other Aloe species; senna, bitters, Ciklavit, Niprisan, ginger, garlic, vegetable and fruit products.

 

 3 E

PCG705

Classical and Chemo-taxonomy of Medicinal Plant

Classical plant taxonomy, nomenclature and identification using floral keys; herbarium specimen preparation; institutional herbaria (with examples of internationally recognized herbaria) and their relevance to plant authentication. Taxonomy of selected angiosperm families. Chemotaxomy of lower & higher plants, Chemotaxonomic groups of plants using  chemical constituents as markers.  Contributions of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpinoids, etalians and other secondary metabolites to chemotaxonomic research. Relevance of biosynthetic and metabolic pathways to chemotaxonomic incidence, using appropriate examples among the plant families e.g Rutaceae, Meliaceae.

 

 3 R

PCG 706

Bioassay Techniques in Medicinal Plant Research

Advanced treatment of basic methods used in natural product research for drug discovery and development. Microchemical screening methods for bioactive compounds in plants.  Selection and in vitro and in vivo biologically – monitored phytochemical fractionation and separation of plant constituents. Principles involved in phytochemical procedures: extraction, detection, fractionation, purification and isolation of different classes of plants’ secondary metabolites.  Simple, preliminary, bioassay techniques used for bioactivity-guided phytochemical procedures e.g. Bench top assays for anti-inflammatory, antisickling, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antioxidant /immune boosting agents.

 

 3 C

PCG 707

Advanced Laboratory Course I

The main focus of this laboratory course consists of different scheduled hands-on, demonstrated and illustrated experiments based on the principles underlying the techniques studied in the theory courses.  For many of the experiments, carefully designed practical hand-outs will be provided to guide and improve the students’ practical skills and presentation of research results.

 

 3 R

PCG 708

Directed Literature Search and Seminar Presentation

Exposure to:

(i) Principles of seminar presentation, paper writing and grant proposal writing will be made available to students.

(ii) The student is also expected to write-up his/her findings on published data obtained from a specific study area in Pharmacognosy or related field which should be, prepared in “powerpoint” form for seminar presentation. At a later stage of the study,the student is also expected to present his/her MSc. bench-work results in a Departmental seminar.  An average of one graded seminar in a semester is expected per graduate student.

 

 2 C

PCG 709

Advanced Separation Techniques in Pharmacognosy

Basis for separation of natural product mixtures; advantages and limitations. Advanced treatment of qualitative and quantitative chromatographic procedures in the analysis of plants’ secondary metabolites (e.g.TLC, PC, GLC, GC/MS, HPLC, VLC,CC, Gel filtration, ion-exchange, etc); principles of chromatographic separation(based on adsorption and partition mechanisms), purification, isolation, quantification and solute identification.

 

 3 C

 PCG710

M. Sc. Projects

Each graduate student is assigned a project in Pharmacognosy, approved by the Departmental postgraduate committee, a report on which should consist of relevant literature review plus some appropriate laboratory experiments.         

 6 C

EMS 727

Basic Statistical Procedures

Role of statistics in human biology and medicine.  Revision of basic concepts of probability and descriptive statistics.  Significance tests methods based on the normal distribution.  Analysis of variance, Regression and Correlation, Confidence intervals.  Format and informat tests of assumptions.  Tests for discrete data.  Contingency tables.  Basic distribution free methods.  Mann Whitney, Sign test, spearman and Kendall correlation, Kdruskall, Wallis tests.

 3 E

MEB 771

Ethnobotany I (Medicinal Plants)

Scientific approach to the study of plants of proven medicinal values to humans and animals.  Techniques of identification.  Collection and preservation.  Modern methods of herbal preparations.  Toxic plants.  Collection and documentation of ethnobotany.  Phytochemical and biocontrol screening

 

 4 E

 

PHM 704

Microbial Infection and Chemotherapy

Host-parasite relationship in bacterial and fungal infections. Detailed study of pneumo-occistrptococci and Staphylococci. Also, infections of the neisseia, enteric bacilli, pseudomonas, clostridia, Mycobacterium, Actinomycetes and fungi, Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. Pharmaceutical products of microbial origin

 3 E

PHM 711

Advanced bacteriology

A review of basic (conventional) methods in the characterization/identification of bacteria and recent advances classification, characterization/identification pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of special groups of bacteria (important in medicine and pharmacy): the escherichia streptococci, clostridis vibros, bordetesla neisseria and spinechates

 2 E

 

PGDHM COURSES

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE AND CONTENT

UNITAGE/ STATUS

PCG  713

Botanical considerations and Taxonomy of Medicinal Plants

Introductory Botany (morphology and anatomy of higher plants).  Folk uses of plants in various cultures.

The microscope and use in identification of plant drugs

Photosynthesis and introduction to secondary metabolism.  Use of field guides and identification keys.  Herbarium Specimens, Classical and Chemo-taxonomy.

 2   E

PCG 714

Plants as Sources of Drugs.

Classification and Literature of natural medicines.  Barks, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots and rhizomes.  Herbal pharmacopoeias and phytotherapy.  Sources of raw materials (excipients – suspending agents, disintegrants, binders, sweeteners, colourants, flavouring agents).  Relevance of these to herbal formulations.  Relevance of ethnobotanical surveys.

 2   E

PCG 716

Herbal Medicine in Traditional Medical Practice

History and philosophy of herbal medicine, Definitions, Concept of health and illness. Role of traditional medicine in Primary Healthcare (PHC). 

Relationship between traditional and orthodox medicine.  Traditional medicine methods and practices.   Integration and co-recognition.  Advantages and disadvantages of traditional medicine.

Some scientific evidence supporting use of selected herbs and practices in Traditional Medicine.  Depth of Scientific knowledge in the use of common Nigerian medicinal plants in traditional medicine.

Ethics, laws and policies regulating herbal medicine and the relevant/ Regulatory Agencies.  Mutual benefits and challenges of practice and research collaboration with conventional health workers.

 

 3   C

PCG 717

Therapeutics

Common and priority diseases, diagnosis, prevention and herbal treatment strategies.  Case taking, clinical practice and examinations; Drug and food interactions.  Patient Referral Systems, immunization, herb-drug interaction awareness, toxicity, side effects, contraindications, and precautions.  Common poisonous and controlled plants.  Practice limitations.

 2   R

PCG 718

Formulation and Packaging of Herbal Medicines

Herbal teas, infusions, tisane, tinctures, decoction and concoctions.

Formulation of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (Mixtures, solutions, tablets, capsules, emulsions, suspensions, creams and ointments).  Packaging and labeling of herbal products.  Weights and Measures.  Relevant NAFDAC requirements for compliance.

 

2   R

PCG 719

General Quality Control and Standardization of Natural Medicines

General methods of evaluation of vegetable and animal drugs.  Reasons for standardization.  Basic information and standards with respect to identity, potency, purity and safety. Toxicological studies.

Pharmacopoeial standards and monographs.  Regulatory bodies (NAFDAC, WHO).  Good manufacturing practices.  Organoleptic macroscopical, microscopical and instrumental methods of analysis of natural medicines.  Prospects and problems of standardization.

 3   C

PCG 722

Seminar

Designed to acquaint students with current and relevant literature in Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicines.

 2   R

PCG 723

Field Trip and Externship

This course will involve supervised trips and Externship to traditional healing homes, herb seller’s outlets, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Herbaria and medicinal gardens.  Students will be required to make representative collections, prepare herbarium specimens and present reports comprising observations and skills acquired.

 2 R

PCG 724

Practicals

Laboratory work to illustrate principles underlying theories and methods discussed in curriculum.

 

 2  R

PCG 725

Project

Each candidate will present a supervised report incorporating a review of relevant literature and an account of laboratory work on a selected topic.

 4  C

PCG 726

Anatomy and Physiology for Traditional/Natural Health Practitioners

The human body, cell and general physiology.  Blood cells and circulation of blood.  Respiratory, gastrointestinal, excretory, nervous, endocrine and reproductive systems.  Metabolism and maintenance of body heat. Immune system as body defense mechanism in health and disease.

 

 3   C  

PHM 701

Microbial Spoilage and Preservation

Types of microbial spoilage, sources of microbial contaminants.  Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage.  Effect of preservation and inoculum size. Detailed study of available preservatives.  Factors influencing choice of preservatives for pharmaceutical products.

 2    R

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE AND CONTENT

UNITAGE/ STATUS

PCG  713

Botanical considerations and Taxonomy of Medicinal Plants

Introductory Botany (morphology and anatomy of higher plants).  Folk uses of plants in various cultures.

The microscope and use in identification of plant drugs

Photosynthesis and introduction to secondary metabolism.  Use of field guides and identification keys.  Herbarium Specimens, Classical and Chemo-taxonomy.

 2   E

PCG 714

Plants as Sources of Drugs.

Classification and Literature of natural medicines.  Barks, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots and rhizomes.  Herbal pharmacopoeias and phytotherapy.  Sources of raw materials (excipients – suspending agents, disintegrants, binders, sweeteners, colourants, flavouring agents).  Relevance of these to herbal formulations.  Relevance of ethnobotanical surveys.

 2   E

PCG 716

Herbal Medicine in Traditional Medical Practice

History and philosophy of herbal medicine, Definitions, Concept of health and illness. Role of traditional medicine in Primary Healthcare (PHC). 

Relationship between traditional and orthodox medicine.  Traditional medicine methods and practices.   Integration and co-recognition.  Advantages and disadvantages of traditional medicine.

Some scientific evidence supporting use of selected herbs and practices in Traditional Medicine.  Depth of Scientific knowledge in the use of common Nigerian medicinal plants in traditional medicine.

Ethics, laws and policies regulating herbal medicine and the relevant/ Regulatory Agencies.  Mutual benefits and challenges of practice and research collaboration with conventional health workers.

 

 3   C

PCG 717

Therapeutics

Common and priority diseases, diagnosis, prevention and herbal treatment strategies.  Case taking, clinical practice and examinations; Drug and food interactions.  Patient Referral Systems, immunization, herb-drug interaction awareness, toxicity, side effects, contraindications, and precautions.  Common poisonous and controlled plants.  Practice limitations.

 2   R

PCG 718

Formulation and Packaging of Herbal Medicines

Herbal teas, infusions, tisane, tinctures, decoction and concoctions.

Formulation of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (Mixtures, solutions, tablets, capsules, emulsions, suspensions, creams and ointments).  Packaging and labeling of herbal products.  Weights and Measures.  Relevant NAFDAC requirements for compliance.

 

2   R

PCG 719

General Quality Control and Standardization of Natural Medicines

General methods of evaluation of vegetable and animal drugs.  Reasons for standardization.  Basic information and standards with respect to identity, potency, purity and safety. Toxicological studies.

Pharmacopoeial standards and monographs.  Regulatory bodies (NAFDAC, WHO).  Good manufacturing practices.  Organoleptic macroscopical, microscopical and instrumental methods of analysis of natural medicines.  Prospects and problems of standardization.

 3   C

PCG 722

Seminar

Designed to acquaint students with current and relevant literature in Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicines.

 2   R

PCG 723

Field Trip and Externship

This course will involve supervised trips and Externship to traditional healing homes, herb seller’s outlets, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Herbaria and medicinal gardens.  Students will be required to make representative collections, prepare herbarium specimens and present reports comprising observations and skills acquired.

 2 R

PCG 724

Practicals

Laboratory work to illustrate principles underlying theories and methods discussed in curriculum.

 

 2  R

PCG 725

Project

Each candidate will present a supervised report incorporating a review of relevant literature and an account of laboratory work on a selected topic.

 4  C

PCG 726

Anatomy and Physiology for Traditional/Natural Health Practitioners

The human body, cell and general physiology.  Blood cells and circulation of blood.  Respiratory, gastrointestinal, excretory, nervous, endocrine and reproductive systems.  Metabolism and maintenance of body heat. Immune system as body defense mechanism in health and disease.

 

 3   C  

PHM 701

Microbial Spoilage and Preservation

Types of microbial spoilage, sources of microbial contaminants.  Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage.  Effect of preservation and inoculum size. Detailed study of available preservatives.  Factors influencing choice of preservatives for pharmaceutical products.

 2    R

Synopsis of Courses

      M.Sc. (Pharmacognosy)

      PGDHM